[WSMDiscuss] The US is aflame... : Nationwide Uprising Against Failed State Triggered By Police Killings (Kevin Zeese and Margaret Flowers) / WAVE OF UNREST AS PROTESTS SPREAD ACROSS AMERICA (Adrian Morrow and Tamsin McMahon)
jai.sen at cacim.net
Mon Jun 1 17:21:12 CEST 2020
Monday, June 1, 2020
Viruses in movement…, Resistance in movement…, The US in movement…
[The US is aflame… there’s definitely some message blowin’ in the wind. Here, two attempts at standing back and trying to get the larger picture, and with the authors of the first being closely involved with the People’s Strike movement in the US that has called a general strike today, June 1, as it doing on the first of every month, starting from May 1 (see separate post, dated yesterday) :
· Nationwide Uprising Against Failed State Triggered By Police Killings (Kevin Zeese and Margaret Flowers, Populat Resistance)
· WAVE OF UNREST AS PROTESTS SPREAD ACROSS AMERICA (Adrian Morrow <https://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/adrian-morrow/> and Tamsin McMahon <https://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/tamsin-mcmahon/>, The Globe and Mail)
[Make sure you check out the video at the link in the first article, at As one protester exclaimed, <https://twitter.com/AintreeIron/status/1266518923761070081> :
Nationwide Uprising Against Failed State Triggered By Police Killings
By Kevin Zeese and Margaret Flowers, Popular Resistance
May 31, 2020
The nationwide uprising sparked by the murder of George Floyd and other recent racially-motivated events is a response to the bi-partisan failed state in which we live. It comes in the midst of the COVID19 pandemic and the largest economic collapse in the US in more than a century. These three crises have disproportionately impacted people of color and added to longterm racial inequality and injustice.
Black Lives Matter erupted six years ago when a police officer shot and killed Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO. Since that time, police have murdered approximately 1,100 people every year. <https://www.huffpost.com/entry/police-killings-lynchings-capital-punishment_b_8462778#_edn2> The response of the government at all levels to the crisis of police killings has been virtually nonexistent. While people seek to avenge the death of George Floyd, the problems are much deeper and the changes needed are much broader.
The Root of the Problem Is a Failed State
During the COVID19 pandemic, millionaires and billionaires have been bailed out by the government with trillions of dollars <https://popularresistance.org/the-us-response-to-covid-19-has-lavished-wealth-on-the-rich/> while working people were given a pittance of $1,200 per person and a short term increase in unemployment benefits for the more than 40 million people who have lost their jobs. Many workers who provide essential services have had to continue to work putting themselves and their communities at risk.
Urgently needed healthcare is out of reach for millions with no or skimpy health insurance resulting in people dying at home or not going to the hospital until their illness became serious. For this and other reasons, COVID19 is disproportionately impacting <https://popularresistance.org/in-a-pandemic-health-inequities-are-even-deadlier/> communities of color.
Glen Ford of Black Agenda Report puts the mass revolt <https://popularresistance.org/the-blue-plague-and-black-death/> in the context of the long history of white supremacy that has existed since Africans were brought to the United States. Chattel slavery was enforced by the earliest form of policing, <https://plsonline.eku.edu/insidelook/history-policing-united-states-part-1> with the first formal slave patrol created in the Carolina colonies in 1704. After the Civil War and a brief period of Reconstruction where African people could participate in civic life, Jim Crow followed with white racists, often allied with Southern police, inflicting terrorism against the Black population through lynchings and other means. Black people were arrested for laws like vagrancy and then punished by being forced to work picking cotton or other jobs. This new form of slavery continues as inmates are forced to work for virtually no pay in prisons, are leased out to dangerous jobs like meat processing, or are used as scabs <https://popularresistance.org/nola-garbage-workers-form-union-to-fightback/>.
George Floyd’s murder enraged people who have seen too many deaths as a result of police violence. The murder in broad daylight with cameras filming and scores of witnesses showed the impunity of police who are used to not being held accountable for their violence. During the uprising, police have used extreme violence and targeted people with cameras and the media even saying they were the problem.
The root of the problem is a failed state that does not represent the people and has a deep history of racism and inequality that are being magnified by the current crises. The failure to respond to these crises is resulting in an ungovernable country as the social contract has been broken.
Lawlessness among the wealth class, corruption of politicians by campaigns financed by the wealthiest with payoffs to their children and relatives has set the stage for no respect for the law. As one protester exclaimed, <https://twitter.com/AintreeIron/status/1266518923761070081> “Don’t talk to us about looting, you are the looters. You have been looting from black people. You looted from the Native Americans. Don’t talk to us about violence, you taught us violence.”
Last Words of people killed by police from Twitter, Washington, DC May 30, 2020
The Failed State Cannot Reform Itself
George Floyd’s final words, “I can’t breathe,” echoed the same words of Eric Garner, who was killed six years ago by a New York police officer. Although there were protests then, not much has changed. The system failed to respond.
Failure starts at the top. There have been years of inaction at all levels of government. The New York Times reports <https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/29/us/politics/justice-department-civil-rights-george-floyd.html> “The administration has largely dismantled police oversight efforts, curbing the use of federal consent decrees to overhaul local police departments. Mr. Barr has said that communities that criticize law enforcement may not deserve police protection, and Mr. Trump has encouraged officers not to be ‘too nice’ in handling suspects.”
Trump poured gasoline on the current fire with incendiary rhetoric promising ‘looting leads to shooting’ echoing racists of the past and promising to send in the US military if Democrats can’t stop the uprising. Trump has put the military on alert <https://readersupportednews.org/news-section2/318-66/63201-focus-pentagon-prepares-military-police-for-minneapolis-deployment-as-protests-over-george-floyds-murder-continue> to deploy to civilian protests. He maintains power by dividing people praising armed protesters who demanded reopening the economy despite the pandemic and calling unarmed protesters against police violence “thugs”.
On Friday, the White House locked down on security alert because of protests. Trump responded by calling for MAGA protesters to come to the White House. They did not come but protests at the White House <https://twitter.com/BrianBeckerDC/status/1267213119094480897> have continued to increase.
Both Republicans and Democrats are responsible for the current rebellion. Joe Biden has described himself as a ‘law and order’ Democrat <https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/25/us/joe-biden-crime-laws.html> from the beginning of his career. He was the primary architect of the federal mass incarceration <https://www.alternet.org/2015/10/joe-bidens-role-americas-prison-nightmare/> of Black people and helped add hundreds of thousands of police with militarized equipment to urban communities. He courts police unions that defend killer cops. And Biden opposed the integration of schools. <https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/joe-biden-didn-t-just-compromise-segregationists-he-fought-their-n1021626>
The failure of leadership continues at the state and local levels with politicians closely tied to the Fraternal Order of Police, which aggressively defends police who kill civilians. Every city can point to a series of police killings with no prosecutions or acquittals and few convictions. Minneapolis is a city with a long history of race-based police violence. Indeed, violence against Indigenous peoples <https://popularresistance.org/minneapolis-natives-condemn-mans-death-in-custody-racist-ideologies/> led to the formation of the American Indian Movement. Tne Intercept <https://theintercept.com/2020/05/29/george-floyd-minneapolis-police-reform/> summarizes some of the cases:
In 2015, the police killed Jamar Clark a 24-year-old black man. Protests lasted two weeks but led to no prosecution.
In 2016, Philando Castile, a 32-year-old black motorist, was killed <https://www.cnn.com/2017/06/20/us/philando-castile-shooting-dashcam/index.html> in a Minneapolis suburb. More than two weeks of protest followed and two years later the officer was acquitted.
In 2017, Justine Ruszczyk, a 40-year-old white woman, approached a Minneapolis police car to report a sexual assault. The police officer, Mohamed Noor, who shot and killed her was sentenced to 12 years in prison <https://theintercept.com/2019/05/02/minnesota-police-convicted-justine-damond/>, and her family was awarded a record $20 million settlement.
In 2018, body camera footage showed Minneapolis police chasing Thurman Blevins, a 31-year-old black man, and shooting him to death. Prosecutors refused to file charges against the officers who killed Blevins.
Protests have led to some changes but they haven’t solved the problem. Money has been spent on body cameras, which have rarely had any impact. Similarly, training on de-escalation and racial sensitivity has made little difference.
Over the last six years, cities have increased funding for police departments at the expense of health, education, and other underfunded urban programs. Rather than providing people with necessities, the government has relied on controlling neglected communities with an occupying police force. Some of the police are even trained by the Israeli occupiers.
Even in the midst of a pandemic and economic collapse, the government cannot give people access to healthcare, protect their jobs, suspend their rents or control food prices. As Rosa Miriam Elizalde writes <https://popularresistance.org/the-plague-here-and-there/> in her comparison of the United States to Cuba, the difference is a matter of values. The United States government spends more than 60 percent of the discretionary budget on weapons and war. It should be no surprise that the government acted more quickly to suppress people with militarized police, thousands of National Guard troops, and curfews than it did to protect their lives when the pandemic and recession started.
Abolish the Police, Protesters march through downtown Minneapolis. By Stephen Maturen for Getty Images.
Reform Is Not Enough: Defund The Police, Give Communities Control, Build Alternatives to Police
The country must look more deeply at policing. Retired police major, Neill Franklin, the executive director of the Law Enforcement Action Partnership told the Intercept, <https://theintercept.com/2020/05/29/george-floyd-minneapolis-police-reform/> “We need a new paradigm of policing in the United States. It needs to be completely dismantled and reconstructed, not changing a policy here or there.”
The Minneapolis group, Reclaim the Block, wrote a statement <https://twitter.com/BlackVisionsMN/status/1266358166025011201> calling on the city council to defund the police department. Last week, they made four demands of their city council:
Never again vote to increase police funding.
Propose and vote for a $45 million cut from MPD’s budget as the city responds to projected COVID19 shortfalls.
Protect and expand current investment in community-led health and safety strategies.
Do everything in their power to compel MPD and all law enforcement agencies to immediately cease enacting violence on community members.
This is an agenda that makes sense for cities across the country. A growing movement <https://theintercept.com/2020/05/22/la-budget-nyc-police/> demands the defunding of police departments. It is evident that the way to reduce police violence is to fund alternative non-law enforcement approaches to conflict resolution, safety strategies, and mental health as well as investing in neglected communities.
Another growing movement calls for democratic community control of the police <https://popularresistance.org/community-control-of-police/> where communities elect a Civilian Police Accountability Council <https://chicago.legistar.com/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=4169358&GUID=D06677DA-F7F0-4036-B525-F577D7A1E849&Options=Advanced&Search=> (CPAC). The critical difference between this and Civilian Police Boards is that the Accountability Council is democratically elected not appointed by the police chief or politicians who are allied with the police. Neill Franklin urges a national database of officers terminated for misconduct so they will not be hired by other police departments.
The New York Times reports <https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/30/us/derek-chauvin-george-floyd.html?action=click&module=Spotlight&pgtype=Homepage> that “in 2012, the civilian board in Minneapolis was replaced by an agency called the Office of Police Conduct Review. Since then, more than 2,600 misconduct complaints have been filed by members of the public, but only 12 have resulted in an officer being disciplined.” The most severe censure was only a 40-hour suspension. Derek Chauvin, who killed George Floyd, has at least 17 misconduct complaints, none of which derailed his career, in nearly two decades with the Minneapolis Police Department.
Chauvin was involved in the fatal shooting in October 2006 when Senator Klobuchar <https://www.washingtontimes.com/topics/amy-klobuchar/> was Minneapolis’ district attorney. Rather than prosecuting Chauvin, she sent the case to a grand jury that declined to indict Chauvin. In 2011, Chauvin was involved in a high-profile shooting of a Native American. He was placed on administrative leave but was reinstated to the force when no charges were brought. If democratic community control of the police were in place, it is highly likely Chauvin would have been removed as a police officer and George Floyd would still be alive.
Support for change is growing. Bus drivers refused to transport arrested protesters for the police in Minneapolis and New York. Payday Report wrote <https://paydayreport.com/bus-driver-unions-nationwide-refusing-to-work-with-police>transit union leaders nationwide are instructing members not to cooperate with police in arresting protesters. And Universities are dropping their contracts with the Minneapolis Police Department.
Protests continue nationwide. Thus far escalating police violence and the use of the National Guard has failed to stop them. The government may use the military, although by law there are restrictions on that. There will be efforts to pacify the protests by political leaders and non-profits who will try to take over the leadership. These must be rejected.
To achieve the changes we need, people must stay in the streets and connect the problems we face to the demand for systemic changes. We will need to support each other as many are doing by distributing food and providing medical care, jail support and legal representation. We urge people to meet in assemblies to discuss what their goals are, their vision of how communities could be organized differently and what actions they can take. We need to build confidence in each other that we can work together for the future we want. That is how we will get there.
A view from Canada – by the US correspondents of a major Canadian paper :
WAVE OF UNREST AS PROTESTS SPREAD ACROSS AMERICA
Thousands arrested as protests against racism, police brutality spread across America
Adrian Morrow <https://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/adrian-morrow/> and Tamsin McMahon <https://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/tamsin-mcmahon/>, The Globe and Mail
A demonstrator protesting the death of George Floyd talks to a member of the Secret Service at Lafayette Square in Washington, DC on May 31, 2020 (MANDEL NGAN/AFP/Getty Images)
The United States is bracing for its sixth day of mass protests against racism and police brutality, a rising wave of anger that has swept dozens of cities across the country.
Authorities called in the National Guard, arrested more than 4,000 people and imposed a record number of curfews – at least 40 by late Sunday – but demonstrators were largely ignoring them.
During the weekend, protests took over streets from coast to coast, rioters torched buildings and cars, and officers cracked down with rubber bullets and tear gas. The protests were some of the largest in the country’s long history of caustic race relations, rivalling in size the civil-rights demonstrations that took down segregation laws in the 1960s.
With states and cities doubling down on efforts to crush the unrest and protesters condemning the police response as further evidence of a broken justice system, there was no immediate end in sight.
The upheaval, which began in Minneapolis over the death of George Floyd last Monday, comes amid the COVID-19 pandemic that has left tens of millions out of work and disproportionately killed African-Americans. It represents the country’s most widespread mass gatherings in nearly three months.
Watchdog groups say dozens of journalists have been attacked or arrested while covering U.S. protests <https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-watchdog-groups-say-dozens-of-journalists-have-been-attacked-or/>
U.S. President Donald Trump has made a series of incendiary comments, tweeting Friday that “When the looting starts, the shooting starts” and threatening to use the army to deal with protesters. The following morning, he called for a “MAGA NIGHT AT THE WHITE HOUSE,” suggesting that his supporters should show up when the protesters did.
On Sunday, the President said he would designate Antifa, a loosely organized left-wing anti-fascist movement, as a terrorist organization. He issued no similar condemnation of the mostly white anti-lockdown protesters who brandished semi-automatic rifles at the Michigan state legislature in April. By Sunday night, the White House’s lights were all turned off as protests raged outside. CNN reported that Mr. Trump at one point spent nearly an hour in an underground bunker as a precaution.
Video of Mr. Floyd, an African-American man, gasping for air as white police officer Derek Chauvin knelt on his neck reignited simmering frustration with a country that has failed to confront racist brutality despite numerous similar tragedies and protests.
“It could have been me,” said Michael West, a 34-year-old project manager at a Washington-area hospital as he protested on the streets of the capital Saturday night.
Mr. West, who is black, recounted being followed by a police officer in the prosperous suburb where he lives because the officer found him “suspicious.” When Mr. West requested the officer’s badge number, he said, the policeman became aggressive. Only the intervention of another officer who de-escalated the situation, Mr. West said, saved him from potentially becoming a victim of police brutality.
“When I have to tell my 12-year-old son he has to comply and just don’t ask any questions when these police officers are corrupt – that hurts,” he said.
At the Saturday protest in Washington, thousands of demonstrators converged on the White House in the late afternoon and remained past midnight. Chanting “I can’t breathe,” Mr. Floyd’s words to Mr. Chauvin, they breached a low security fence in a nearby park and were driven back by riot police.
Demonstrators gather in front of San Diego Police in downtown San Diego, California on May 31, 2020. (ARIANA DREHSLER/AFP/Getty Images)
A smaller group of protesters snaked through the city, smashing up businesses and police cars, torching dumpsters and at least one SUV, and setting off fireworks. Officers used batons, tear gas and flashbang grenades on the crowd, which pelted them with water bottles. On Sunday, demonstrators built a fire around plastic security barriers, and tossed an American flag onto the conflagration.
In New York, several protests broke out across the city, including at Trump Tower. In one incident, video showed police driving two SUVs into groups of demonstrators and knocking people down. In Minneapolis, officers were seen firing paintballs at people standing on their porches in a residential neighbourhood. In Louisville, Ky., police pepper-sprayed a television news reporter during a live broadcast, and one protester broke the hand off a statue of Louis XVI.
A tally by the Associated Press showed at least 4,100 people arrested over the weekend. At least three people were killed around the protests – in Indianapolis, Chicago and Oakland, Calif. – though it was not immediately clear if all of the incidents were connected to the demonstrations.
Mayors in a number of cities, including Los Angeles, Washington and Minneapolis, brought in overnight curfews, demanding everyone clear the streets under threat of arrest. Chicago shut down its public transit system to stop people from reaching the protests.
There were also some more peaceful moments. In Coral Gables, Fla., members of the Miami-Dade Chiefs of Police Association knelt in prayer with the protesters. In Flint, Mich., the local sheriff discarded his helmet and baton and joined the protest.
The demonstrations follow a string of high-profile killings of unarmed black people. In March, Louisville police opened fire in Breonna Taylor’s apartment after bursting in to serve a search warrant on the 26-year-old hospital emergency-room worker. In early May, police in Georgia charged three white vigilantes with the February murder of 25-year-old jogger Ahmaud Arbery – arrests that only took place after video of the incident went viral.
SEE VIDEO AT LINK TO ARTICLE
Several major American cities imposed curfews overnight Saturday amid intensifying protests over the death of George Floyd and police brutality. Reuters
It also comes after people of colour have been particularly hurt by the novel coronavirus. Research from Yale University estimates that African-Americans were 3.5 times and Latinos twice as likely to die of COVID-19 as white people. A Pew Research survey found that black and Latino people were also far more likely to know someone who lost a job or income as a result of the pandemic-related shutdown.
Some officials worried that the protests would further spread infection, and burden a health system already stretched to the breaking point by COVID-19.
“It’s a pandemic and people of colour are getting hit harder,” Atlanta Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms said Sunday on CNN. “We’re going to see the other side of this in a couple of weeks.”
Minnesota Lieutenant-Governor Peggy Flanagan, meanwhile, accused white supremacists of joining the protests and engaging in vandalism to deliberately stoke chaos.
The crackdown spurred international embarrassment for the U.S., with Chinese leaders seizing on the protests to accuse Washington of hypocrisy for encouraging pro-democracy demonstrations in Hong Kong.
“The Chinese government has not shown any support for the riots in the U.S. I hope Americans notice Beijing’s restraint. We have not tried to kick the U.S. while it’s down,” Hu Xijin, editor of the state-run Global Times said in a Twitter video.
A police officer kneels down in solidarity with protesters during a rally in Washington, D.C. on May 31, 2020. (JONATHAN ERNST/Reuters)
Democratic Party politicians tried to find a balance between backing the protesters and condemning property destruction.
Congressman John Lewis, a leader of the 1960s civil-rights movement, contended that peaceful protest would be a more effective way to make change.
“To the rioters here in Atlanta and across the country: I see you, and I hear you. I know your pain, your rage, your sense of despair and hopelessness,” he said in a statement. “Rioting, looting and burning is not the way. Organize. Demonstrate. Sit-in. Stand-up. Vote. Be constructive, not destructive.”
Former vice-president Joe Biden, Mr. Trump’s presumptive challenger in November’s election, criticized demonstrators’ “violence.” He also vowed to tackle police brutality if elected, but offered no specific proposals.
“We are a nation enraged, but we cannot allow our rage to consume us. We are a nation exhausted, but we will not allow our exhaustion to defeat us,” Mr. Biden wrote in a post on Medium.
But Alvin Tillery, an expert in American race politics, said the focus on property destruction was misplaced. Such acts, starting with the Boston Tea Party that protested against British taxation of the American colonies, are par for the course in the country’s history.
George Floyd's niece Gabrielle Thompson, centre, reacts during a 'Justice for George Floyd' event in Houston, Texas on May 30, 2020. (MARK FELIX/AFP/Getty Images)
“No one’s condoning violence,” said Prof. Tillery, director of the Center for the Study of Diversity and Democracy at Northwestern University. “But just from an analytic standpoint, we’ve got to understand that when people see the system breaking down, this is a perfectly normal reaction to it.”
He argued that this wave of protests was different from previous uprisings over racist police brutality because millennials and Generation Z are less inclined to put up with institutional racism than their forebears.
“Young people are not willing to wait, or accept platitudes around slow changes in the ways that, say, earlier generations were willing to,” he said.
The arrest of Mr. Chauvin, for instance, appears to have done nothing to dampen the protests. Prosecutors charged the officer Friday with third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter; his bail was set Saturday at US$500,000. But demonstrators in Washington shouted that the charges were too lenient and that he should not be allowed out of prison ahead of his trial. Protesters have also called for charges against the other three officers involved.
“Once the anger has receded," Prof. Tillery said, "I think that there’s an opportunity in Minnesota, with their leadership, to really keep pushing for police reform and to push more broadly for democratic reforms that make people believe that the system is working better for them. That’s really all they can do.”
People march in Saint Paul, Minn. on May 31, 2020. (LUCAS JACKSON/Reuters)
“It’s also an opportunity for the minority party, the Democrats to step up and put forward an agenda for change around these issues,” he said. “The good news from the streets is that so many young, white kids in the millennial and Gen Z generations obviously want change and that is a really really powerful marker that the Democrats could take advantage of if they weren’t afraid of their own shadow.”
He also said the Black Lives Matter movement has to focus on seizing this moment to build a multiracial national coalition pushing for racial justice.
Protester Raj Lakhiani, 37, said the demonstration was about broad inequality and lack of economic opportunity as much as about specific instances of police racism.
“You look around at who’s here, it’s the young people. They can’t buy a house, they can’t buy a car,” he said. “I think this year could be the tipping point.”
Mr. West, the project manager, contended that nothing less than wholesale change at the ballot box in November would fix the entrenched scourge of racism. And he urged people of all races to join together to make it happen.
“It’s not just Trump; everything under him has to go,” he said. “This isn’t just a black issue or a Latino issue, it’s an American issue.”
Independent researcher, editor; Senior Fellow at the School of International Development and Globalisation Studies at the University of Ottawa
jai.sen at cacim.net <mailto:jai.sen at cacim.net>
Now based in New Delhi, India (+91-98189 11325) and in Ottawa, Canada, on unceded and unsurrendered Anishinaabe territory (+1-613-282 2900)
CURRENT / RECENT publications :
Jai Sen, ed, 2018a – The Movements of Movements, Part 2 : Rethinking Our Dance. Ebook and hard copy available at PM Press <http://www.pmpress.org/>
Jai Sen, ed, 2018b – The Movements of Movements, Part 1 : What Makes Us Move ? (Indian edition). New Delhi : AuthorsUpfront, in collaboration with OpenWord and PM Press. Hard copy available at MOM1AmazonIN <https://www.amazon.in/dp/9387280101/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1522884070&sr=8-2&keywords=movements+of+movements+jai+sen>, MOM1Flipkart <https://www.flipkart.com/the-movements-of-movements/p/itmf3zg7h79ecpgj?pid=9789387280106&lid=LSTBOK9789387280106NBA1CH&marketplace=FLIPKART&srno=s_1_1&otracker=search&fm=SEARCH&iid=ff35b702-e6a8-4423-b014-16c84f6f0092.9789387280106.SEARCH&ppt=Search%20Page>, and MOM1AUpFront <http://www.authorsupfront.com/movements.htm>
Jai Sen, ed, 2017 – The Movements of Movements, Part 1 : What Makes Us Move ?. New Delhi : OpenWord and Oakland, CA : PM Press. Ebook and hard copy available at PM Press <http://www.pmpress.org/>
SUBSCRIBE TO World Social Movement Discuss, an open, unmoderated, and self-organising forum on social and political movement at any level (local, national, regional, and global). To subscribe, simply send an empty email to wsm-discuss-subscribe at lists.openspaceforum.net <mailto:wsm-discuss-subscribe at lists.openspaceforum.net>
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
More information about the WSM-Discuss